Execution structure of the robot

Execution structure of the robot


Execution structure of the robot
That is, the robot body generally adopts a spatial open-chain linkage mechanism for its arms, in which the kinematic pairs (rotating or moving pairs) are often called joints, and the number of joints is usually the number of degrees of freedom of the robot. According to the different joint configuration types and motion coordinate forms, the robot actuator can be divided into rectangular coordinate type, cylindrical coordinate type, polar coordinate type and joint coordinate type. For anthropomorphic considerations, the relevant parts of the robot body are often referred to as the base, waist, arm, wrist, hand (gripper or end effector), and walking part (for mobile robots).

Drive device
It is the mechanism that drives the actuator to move, according to the command signal issued by the control system, with the help of the power element to make the robot move. It inputs electrical signals, and outputs linear and angular displacements. The driving devices used by robots are mainly electric driving devices, such as stepping motors, servo motors, etc., in addition to hydraulic and pneumatic driving devices.

Detection device
It detects the movement and working conditions of the robot in real time, and feeds it back to the control system as needed. After comparing with the setting information, the actuator is adjusted to ensure that the robot's actions meet the predetermined requirements. Sensors as detection devices can be roughly divided into two categories: one is internal information sensors, which are used to detect the internal conditions of each part of the robot, such as the position, speed, acceleration, etc. of each joint, and use the measured information as a feedback signal Send to the controller to form a closed loop control. One is the external information sensor, which is used to obtain information about the robot's work object and the external environment, so that the robot's actions can adapt to changes in the external situation, so that it can achieve a higher level of automation, and even make the robot have some kind of "Feeling" is developing toward intelligence. For example, external sensors such as vision and sound give information about the work object and work environment, and use this information to form a large feedback loop, which will greatly improve the robot's work accuracy.

Control System
One is centralized control, that is, all the control of the robot is completed by a microcomputer. The other is decentralized (level) control, that is, multiple microcomputers are used to share the control of the robot. For example, when the upper and lower levels of microcomputers are used to jointly complete the control of the robot, the host is often used for system management, communication, and kinematics. Calculate the sum dynamics, and send instruction information to the lower-level computer; as a lower-level slave computer, each joint corresponds to a CPU, performs interpolation calculations and servo control processing, realizes a given movement, and feeds back information to the host. According to the different task requirements, the control mode of the robot can be divided into point control, continuous trajectory control and force (torque) control.